Holy Gospel in One
THE HOLY GOSPELS IN ONE
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WHY THIS NARRATIVE OF THE HOLY GOSPELS?
The Holy Gospels in One (HGIO) is a “Word for Word” narrative of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John combined into a single chronological account from 5 BC to AD 31. It is a direct analytical translation of each word from the Greek Received Text in one chronological read. It captures all the details concerning the events from the Gospel writers and dispels the “so-called” contradictory Gospel passages. Critical study aid for the avid Bible student, who flips back and forth across the Gospels, looking at the different insights from the Greek Text. Leading to a dynamic and enriched Bible study experience.
The process used in compiling this narrative is as follows:
- Yeshua’s spoken words are underlined.
- Words that are not in the original Greek manuscripts are italicized to aid readability.
- Commentary in (black italic brackets) are also based on cross-referencing the following sources: Webster’s Dictionary, Nave’s topical Bible, R.A. Torrey’s new topical textbook, Vine’s complete expository dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, Fausset’s, Easton’s, Hitchcock’s and Smith’s Bible dictionaries.
- Colour coding is used to help the reader easily cross reference any word or phrase. Matthew (Blue), Mark (Green), Luke (Red), John (Purple), Acts 1, 1 Corinthians 15, Colossians 1 & 2 Peter (Black).
Process of compilation:
- If there is a common sentence in the Gospels then that sentence which is most complete is used. If another Gospel has a word or phrase which is unique, then that word or phrase is added. For example: Luke 23:25b; John 19:16; Matthew 27:31; and Mark 15:20. The Holy Gospel in One’s rendering is: Now therefore then he (Pilate) delivered Him, Jesus, unto them, to their will in order to be crucified. Now they having taken Jesus and led Him away. And when, after they had mocked Him, they having stripped Him of the scarlet military robe and the purple garment and clothed Him with His garments and led Him away to crucify, in order for them to crucify Him.
To ensure textual accuracy, the following resources were extensively used for cross referencing:
- Nearly every Greek word across the Holy Gospels in the Greek Received Text Stephanus 1550 is captured and translated into English.
- Each passage was cross referenced with a side by side comparison of the King James Version AD 1769 with the Strong’s Concordance. Where a textual discrepancy in sequence or Greek words between the Greek Stephanus 1550 and King James Version 1769 AD existed, then the following sources were used to drive closure:
- Translations based on Greek Byzantine and Received Texts (AD 1522-1598): Tyndale, Sir J Green’s Greek Interlinear.
- Translation based on the Peshito Aramaic Text (Western Church), (originated 2nd Century, oldest manuscripts 6th Century): James Murdock.
- Translations based on the Peshitta Aramaic Text (Eastern Church) (originated 2nd Century, oldest manuscripts 5th Century): Interlinear Younan Translation and Interlinear George Lamsa.
- Translation of the Gospels based on the Latin Vulgate by Jerome (AD 384): Wycliffe.
In order to ensure that the words, tenses and plurality of Greek and Aramaic words were translated correctly, the following were used:
- For tenses, plurality and gender: the Robinson’s Morphological Analysis Codes (RMAC) of Stephanus AD 1550, with variants of Scrivener AD 1894 Received Text.
- For meaning of the Greek and Aramaic words: Strong’s Aramaic & Greek lexicons, the Complete Word Study Dictionary and Thayer’s Greek definitions.
- To ensure the Greek words are consistently translated - an analytical method was used: comparing the Greek words and phrases used elsewhere in the New Testament using Strong’s King James Concordance (KJC) and New American Standard Exhaustive Concordance (NASEC) whilst referencing the above translations.
Maps were uniquely constructed for this narrative. In some credible sources where provinces, cities and towns differed from one another, then writers from the first four centuries (incl. Flavius Josephus) and the latest archaeological resources were used to determine the most probable location.
Jesus’ name in Hebrew is Yeshua (YHWH/Yahweh Sets Free), however to be consistent with the Greek Translation of all the names I have kept the English Translation of the Greek - Jesus.
Denoted specific words: Love - Agapao denoted (A), Agape (Ae) and Phileo (P). Man "Aner" G435 (meaning male) denoted with a (M) to distinguish from Man “anthropos” G444 (meaning mankind).
Thanks to my Helper, Teacher and Comforter - Holy Spirit. And as a servant of Yeshua I dedicate this narrative to my Heavenly Father.
WHY THE RECEIVED TEXT AS SOURCE TEXT?
There are many English translations (KJV, NIV, NLT, NASB, NKJV, NET, RSV etc.), and without going into too much detail, the New Testament English translations are mainly based on two Greek source texts – the Received Text and the Critical Text.
The Received Text (AD 1522-1598) is primarily based on the Byzantine Text (AD ~350-1450). This is the source for some English translations, such as, KJV, NKJV, and LITV etc.
The Critical Text (AD 1881 Westcott and Hort Text) is based primarily on Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus and the Codex Alexandrinus. Vaticanus is believed to be a 4th Century work and was kept in the Vatican from the 15th Century, but some believe due to the exposure in the 19th Century that it was actually a later work to compete with the Received Text. Sinaiticus was discovered in AD 1844 supposedly another 4th Century work, but the evidence supports a 19th Century work done by palaeographer Constantine Simonides. Only the Alexandrinus is a legitimate AD 425 version. They all differ significantly with one another and the Critical Text is primarily an amalgamation of these 3 Greek Texts. This Text is used as a base for most modern English translations, such as, NASB, NIV, NLT, NET, RSV, ESV etc.
The key difference between the Received Text (RT) and the Critical Text (CT) is ~2886 Greek words that either the CT misses or the RT has added. For perspective, this would be like adding or removing Ephesians and Jude from the Bible. However these missing words are scattered throughout the New Testament.
Therefore both texts cannot be true: either the words were added to the original (as the CT suggests about the RT) or there are pieces missing (as the RT suggests about the CT). I believe Yeshua’ words, “Ask and you shall receive, seek and you shall find, knock and it will be opened…” (Matt. 7:7):
For an objective measure: Identify those words and passages missing from the CT source to see if they appear in earlier fragments and manuscripts. Validate those missing by comparing those passages through the “Complete Equivalent”: KJV (RT), Wycliffe/DRB (Latin Vulgate), NET/ESV (CT), Murdock (Peshito) and Lamsa (Peshitta). Then compare the Greek New Testament - Stephanus AD 1550 (RT) to Westtcott-Hort AD 1881 (CT).
There are many other passages and words missing. Here is a brief list: Matthew 6:13; 12:47, 17:21; 18:11; 23:14, Mark 7:16; 9:44, 46; 11:26; 15:28; 16:9-20; Luke 9:55–56; 17:36; 22:43-44; 23:17; John 5:3-4; 7:53-8:11; Acts 8:37; 15:34; 24:6-8; 28:29; Romans 16:24; 2 Corinthians 13:14, etc.
As a subjective measure: Review the historical path of the RT and CT and look at those people who upheld the sources through the centuries. Yeshua said you will know them by their fruit. Did they bank their life on the Word of God? Who gave up their life for the Word of God?
So here are the findings:
- Two of the earliest NT Texts are the Peshitta (Eastern Church) and the Peshito (Western Church), both written in Aramaic. Aramaic was one of the languages used by Yeshua to speak to the people of His day. These manuscripts originated in the 2nd Century however the earliest copies we have today can be dated back to 5th & 6th Century. These contain most, if not all, of the words and passages which are missing in the CT. This gives more credibility to the RT.
- The early church leaders quoted and referenced these words and passages that are missing in the CT. If it wasn’t there how could they quote it? E.g. Mark 16:9-20 is missing from the CT however they are quoted by:
- Justin Martyr (AD 151) quotes verse 20 (Apol. I. c. 45).
- Irenaeus (AD 180) quotes and discusses verse 19 (Adv. Hoer. lib. iii. c. x.).
- Hippolytus (AD 190–227) quotes verses 17-19 (Lagarde's ed., 1858, p. 74).
- Vincentius (AD 256) quoted two verses at the 7th Council of Carthage, held under Cyprian.
- The Acta Pilati (2nd Century) quotes verses 15-18 (Tischendorf's ed., 1853, p. 243, 351).
- The Apostolical Constitutions (3rd or 4th Centuries) quote verses 16-18.
- Papias (AD 100) refers to verse 18 (by Eusebius, Hist. Ecc 3, 39).
- Eusebius (AD 325) discusses these verses, as quoted by Marinus from a lost part of his History.
- Of all the 5300+ Greek fragments and manuscripts from AD 60-1500, the majority of scholars have agreed that they support the RT. Some scholars have argued that the error was passed down through the years and thus found in the RT. Those that support the RT would argue that that which is common is true as in a court of law, and that God has kept His word consistent throughout the ages as per the RT. Although the CT is believed to be 4th and 5th Century Greek Text, these are essentially 19th Century Text. The CT text is a compilation of 3 completely different Greek texts. They differ so much relative to each other that the compilers made decisions based on their preferences.
- Reformationists were people whom God used to get people back to trusting the Word of God. They lived by faith like the early church, believed the Word of God, and died for it. Yeshua said you will know them by their fruit. Nearly all the Reformationists in Europe used the Byzantine & Received Text.
WHY IS THIS TRANSLATION BASED ON THE COMPLETE EQUIVALENT TECHNIQUE (WORD FOR WORD)?
The “Holy Gospels in One” is translated from the Received Text, using the Complete Equivalent translation method. It is translating from the Greek source text word for word. When words are added for clarity then some translators italicize those words to show the reader they were not in the original text.
The Dynamic Equivalent (DE) translates and also interprets the thought of the passage to make it more relevant for the culture of today. The focus is more on the thought of the passage versus the words themselves.
The type of translation technique that is more accurate is the Complete Equivalent as it adheres to the strict council of God’s Word. God tells us never to add or take anything away from His Word (Deut. 4:2; Prov. 30:5-6; Rev. 22:18-19). As Yeshua likewise said, “Neither one jot or one tittle should be taken from the law” (Matt. 5:18) and in another place, “Scripture cannot be broken” (John 10:35). We need to conform our understanding to God’s Word and not force God’s Word to conform to our understanding.
What about the words, colloquial language or cultural expressions of the time? If a word or a passage is a colloquial, it is the Bible that interprets the Bible therefore the text needs to be left in the original format. For example, similar phrases such as “thorn in the flesh” (2 Cor. 12:7) used in the New Testament, can be found in the Old Testament (Num. 33:55; Ezek. 28:24).
What about readability? While the overall readability of the DE is smoother than the CE, it removes the difficult to understand passages that are equally difficult to understand in the original. When the scripture is altered then the obstacles to understanding the Scripture are much greater to overcome. Faithfulness in translation is to leave those difficult passages and ambiguities as fully presented in the second language as in the original. And allowing Holy Spirit to teach and reveal those passages to individuals (1 John 2:27). Only the CE translation tries to achieves this.
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